We explore whether farm land and non-land assets determine the participation of tomato growers in modern markets in Nicaragua, and how farmers’ duration as supermarket suppliers affects their farm capital accumulation and technology. We use a survival analysis approach constructed panel data set of tomato farmers over a 10-year period. Participation in supermarket supply chains is found to be not determined by farm size, and thus small farmers are included. However, non-land assets are important to being in the modern channel, time to adoption, and duration. Duration as a supplier is correlated with capital-led intensification and lower toxic pesticide use.
Paper: Tomato Farmers and Modern Markets in Nicaragua: A Duration Analysis